ADHD in boys

Neurofeedback for ADHD Management

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has become one of the most common neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders of childhood (3% to 7% of school-age children), that persists to adolescence and adulthood in 40-60% cases. ADHD treatment main strategies are the use of pharmacological therapy, omega 3, multivitamins, and multi-minerals. Stimulants work by causing the brain to synthesize more norepinephrine; non-stimulants by slowing the rate at which norepinephrine is broken down. Once the level is where it should be, the brain functions normally, and the individual becomes less hyperactive, inattentive, and/or impulsive. Once the drug wears off, the level falls — and symptoms return. In addition, side-effects, resistance to pharmacological therapy have raised interest in non-pharmacological treatment options. Neurofeedback for ADHD management is a non-pharmacological intervention, based on neuroplasticity characteristics of the brain and utilizes cognitive behavioral therapeutic elements to gain access on and practice brain activity. In fact, several organizations worldwide are looking into claims that neurofeedback such effective as pharmacological therapy, but with significantly long-lasting effectiveness and free of side-effects. This became more actual if take into consideration existing today friendly use technology of neurofeedback devices for ADHD management at home, school, university, and workplace.

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most commonly diagnosed behavioral disorder in children, but it is often misunderstood as well as the subject of controversy. Confusion surrounding the disorder has led to both under- and overtreatment of children. Currently, the disorder is primarily diagnosed by referring to the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition Text Revision (DSM-IV, 1994) or the International Statistical Classification of Mental Disorders (ICD-10, World Health Organization, 1992).

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood-onset, clinically heterogeneous disorder of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Its impact on society is enormous in terms of its financial cost, stress to families, adverse academic and vocational outcomes, and negative effects on self-esteem. Children with ADHD are easily recognized in clinics, in schools, and in the home. Their inattention leads to daydreaming, distractibility, and difficulties in sustaining effort on a single task for a prolonged period. Their impulsivity makes them accident-prone, creates problems with peers, and disrupts classrooms. Their hyperactivity, often manifested as fidgeting and excessive talking is poorly tolerated in schools and is frustrating to parents, who can easily lose them in crowds and cannot get them to sleep at a reasonable hour. In their teenage years, symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity diminish, but in most cases, the symptoms and impairments of ADHD persist. The teen with ADHD is at high risk of low self-esteem, poor peer relationships, conflict with parents, delinquency, smoking, and substance abuse.

The validity of diagnosing ADHD in adults has been a source of much controversy. Some investigators argue that most cases of ADHD remit by adulthood (3), a view that questions the validity of the diagnosis in adulthood. Others argue that the diagnosis of ADHD in adults is both reliable and valid.
Longitudinal studies have found that as many as two-thirds of children with ADHD have impaired ADHD symptoms as adults. In adults, inner restlessness rather than hyperactivity may occur. Throughout the life cycle, a key clinical feature observed in patients with ADHD is comorbidity with conduct, depressive, bipolar, and anxiety disorders.

ADHD Symptoms in Children and Teenagers

ADHD is divided into three subtypes:

  • predominantly inattentive (ADHD-PI or ADHD-I),
  • predominantly hyperactive-impulsive (ADHD-PH or ADHD-HI), and
  • combined type (ADHD-C).

The symptoms of ADHD in children and teenagers are well-defined, and they’re usually noticeable before the age of 6. They occur in more than one situation, such as at home and school.


The main signs of inattentiveness are:
• having a short attention span and being easily distracted
• making careless mistakes – for example, in schoolwork
• appearing forgetful or losing things
• being unable to stick to tasks that are tedious or time-consuming
• appearing to be unable to listen to or carry out instructions
• constantly changing activity or task
• having difficulty organizing tasks

Hyperactivity and impulsiveness

The main signs of hyperactivity and impulsiveness are:
• being unable to sit still, especially in calm or quiet surroundings
• constantly fidgeting
• being unable to concentrate on tasks
• excessive physical movement
• excessive talking
• being unable to wait their turn
• acting without thinking
• interrupting conversations
• little or no sense of danger

These symptoms can cause significant problems in a child’s life, such as underachievement at school, poor social interaction with other children and adults, and problems with discipline.

A common symptom of ADHD in children and adults is the inability to focus at length on the task at hand. Those who have ADHD are easily distracted, which makes it difficult to give sustained attention to a specific activity, assignment, or chore. But a lesser-known, and more controversial, symptom that some people with ADHD demonstrate is known as hyperfocus. Although other conditions include hyperfocus as a symptom, here we will look at hyperfocus as it relates to a person with ADHD.
Hyperfocus is the experience of intense concentration in some people with ADHD. ADHD is not necessarily a deficit of attention, but rather a problem with regulating one’s attention span to desired tasks. So, while mundane tasks may be difficult to focus on, others may be completely absorbing. An individual with ADHD who may not be able to complete homework assignments or work projects may instead be able to focus for hours on video games, sports, or reading.

People with ADHD may immerse themselves so completely in an activity that they want to do or enjoy doing to the point that they become oblivious to everything around them. This concentration can be so intense that an individual loses track of time, other chores, or the surrounding environment. While this level of intensity can be channeled into difficult tasks, such as work or homework, the downside is that ADHD individuals can become immersed in unproductive activities while ignoring pressing responsibilities. No one’s going to mind if someone spends hours solving math problems or painting the house. But hyperfocus can cause trouble if someone gets so wrapped up in a project at work that misses a dinner date, or the child can’t break away from a video game to do his homework.

It also can make it harder to diagnose ADHD, especially in kids considered gifted. They do better in school because their high IQs help them get past the learning issues that usually go along with the disorder, and their ability to hyperfocus can make it even harder to spot. 

It is very important to find ways to manage the focus of children with ADHD and direct it for their development and good performance, finding an interest that removes them from isolated time and fosters social interaction, such as music, sports, or other. 

Adults with ADHD also have to deal with hyperfocus, on the job, and at home. The best way to cope with hyperfocus is not to fight it by forbidding certain activities, but rather to harness it. Making work or school stimulating can capture their focus in the same way as their favorite activities. This may be difficult for a growing child but can ultimately become advantageous for an adult in the workplace. By finding a job that caters to one’s interests, an individual with ADHD can truly shine, using hyperfocus to their advantage.

Correlation between ADHD and high levels of cell phone use

If you’re a parent of a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, you know that their attention can be directed quite intensely onto technology they find fascinating, which includes cell phone games, texting, the internet, and social media. These facets of mobile phone use provide an endless supply of feedback and enticements that keep the pleasure center of the brain very happy, which can make pulling a child away from their phone or yours a real struggle.

Though researchers do not yet know whether excessive phone use increases the risk of ADHD, encouraging thoughtful and limited cell phone use is considered an important life skill for any child. However, there is a correlation between ADHD and high levels of cell phone use, and the increase in children diagnosed with the disorder make researchers wonder how the rise of mobile technology impacts the attention levels of young children and teens. One study found that children who make calls and play games on cell phones were at increased risk for ADHD. However, it is possible that children may play more games on their phone because they already have symptoms of ADHD, such as inattention and hyperfocus.

Some children can become engrossed with a particular smartphone game or app and later toss it aside, but kids with ADHD are at higher risk for becoming behaviorally and cognitively dependent on their device. This can be a cause for concern, as researchers have linked cell phone dependence to symptoms of anxiety, depression, sleep disturbances, and low self-esteem.
Being dependent or overinvolved with a cell phone isn’t just about the number of games a child plays or the texts they send. Kids with ADHD can become caught in a behavioral loop, mindlessly checking different social media apps or seeking to achieve the reach level in a difficult game. Dependence has a cognitive component as well, with the child thinking about or becoming hyperfocused on being able to access and use their phone. For example, they might become distressed when the battery dies, when their phone is not in sight, or when they cannot sleep with their cell phone at night.

Although hyperfocus can have a detrimental effect on a person’s life by distracting them from important tasks, it can also be used positively, as evidenced by many scientists, artists, and writers. Like all symptoms of ADHD, hyperfocus needs to be delicately managed.

When in a hyperfocused state, a child may lose track of time and the outside world may seem unimportant.
It is very important to find ways to manage the focus of children’s with ADHD and direct it for their development and good performance. First of all, for parents, it is necessary to monitor the length of use and the content accessed on their child’s phone and to keep mobile devices out of a child’s bedroom to ensure healthy sleep habits. Less phone use won’t feel like a punishment if kids and teens have flexible, fun options when it comes to their attention. What activities does your child enjoy that don’t involve screens, and how can they be utilized when your child seems particularly dependent on their phone? A day at the park, a museum, or the pool can prove a much-needed break in hyper-focus. Help your child find an interest that removes them from isolated time and fosters social interaction, such as music or sports.

Neurofeedback management of ADHD gives excellent results and leads to significant improvement of memory, attention, concentration, and focus. These improvements will provide the possibility to stop addiction to phones and computers.

Video – More screen tine leads to ADHD

Related conditions in children and teenagers with ADHD

Although not always the case, some children may also have signs of other problems or conditions alongside ADHD, such as:
• Anxiety disorder – which causes your child to worry and be nervous much of the time; it may also cause physical symptoms, such as a rapid heartbeat, sweating, and dizziness
• Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) – this is defined by negative and disruptive behavior, particularly towards authority figures, such as parents and teachers
• Conduct disorder – this often involves a tendency towards highly antisocial behavior, such as stealing, fighting, vandalism, and harming people or animals
• Depression
• Sleep problems – finding it difficult to get to sleep at night, and having irregular sleeping patterns
• Autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) – this affects social interaction, communication, interests, and behavior
• Epilepsy – a condition that affects the brain and causes repeated fits or seizures
• Tourette’s syndrome – a condition of the nervous system, characterized by a combination of involuntary noises and movements (tics)
• Learning difficulties – such as dyslexia

ADHD Symptoms in Adults

In adults, the symptoms of ADHD are more difficult to define. This is largely due to a lack of research into adults with ADHD.
As ADHD is a developmental disorder, it’s believed it cannot develop in adults without it first appearing during childhood. However, it’s known that symptoms of ADHD often persist from childhood into a person’s teenage years and then adulthood.
Any additional problems or conditions experienced by children with ADHD, such as depression or dyslexia, may also continue into adulthood. By the age of 25, an estimated 15% of people diagnosed with ADHD as children still have a full range of symptoms, and 65% still have some symptoms that affect their daily lives. Hyperactivity tends to decrease in adults, while inattentiveness tends to get worse as the pressures of adult life increase. Adult symptoms of ADHD also tend to be far more subtle than childhood symptoms.
Some specialists have suggested the following as a list of symptoms associated with ADHD in adults:

• Impulsiveness
• Excessive activity or restlessness and edginess
• Carelessness and lack of attention to detail
• Continually starting new tasks before finishing old ones
• Poor organizational skills and problems prioritizing
• Poor time management skills
• Problems focusing on a task
• Poor planning
• Trouble multitasking
• Continually losing or misplacing things
• Forgetfulness
• Difficulty keeping quiet, and speaking out of turn
• Blurting out responses and often interrupting others
• Frequent mood swings, irritability, and a quick temper
• Low frustration tolerance
• Trouble coping with stress
• Extreme impatience
• Taking risks in activities, often with little or no regard for personal safety or the safety of others – for example, driving dangerously

Related conditions in adults with ADHD

Although ADHD doesn’t cause other psychological or developmental problems, as with ADHD in children and teenagers, ADHD in adults can occur alongside several related problems or conditions and make treatment more challenging.

Mood disorders. Many adults with ADHD also have depression, bipolar disorder, or another mood disorder. While mood problems aren’t necessarily due directly to ADHD, a repeated pattern of failures and frustrations due to ADHD can worsen depression.
Anxiety disorders. Anxiety disorders occur fairly often in adults with ADHD. Anxiety disorders may cause overwhelming worry, nervousness, and other symptoms. Anxiety can be made worse by the challenges and setbacks caused by ADHD.
Learning disabilities. Adults with ADHD may score lower on academic testing than would be expected for their age, intelligence, and education. Learning disabilities can include problems with understanding and communicating.
Other psychiatric disorders. Adults with ADHD are at increased risk of other psychiatric disorders, such as personality disorders, intermittent explosive disorder, and substance abuse.
– personality disorders – conditions in which an individual differs significantly from the average person in terms of how they think, perceive, feel, or relate to others
– bipolar disorder – a condition affecting your mood, which can swing from one extreme to another
– obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) – a condition that causes obsessive thoughts and compulsive behavior.

The behavioral problems associated with ADHD can also cause problems such as difficulties with relationships and social interaction.

The exact cause of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is not fully understood, although a combination of factors is thought to be responsible.
Researchers suspect that a gene involved in the creation of dopamine, a chemical that controls the brain’s ability to maintain regular and consistent attention may be traced back to ADHD. ADHD tends to run in families and, in most cases, it’s thought the genes you inherit from your parents are a significant factor in developing the condition.

Research shows that parents and siblings of a child with ADHD are more likely to have ADHD themselves. However, the way ADHD is inherited is likely to be complex and is not thought to be related to a single genetic fault.

Among the factors that are thought to contribute to ADHD are:

• Brain injury or infection
• a lack of oxygen, or exposure to alcohol or nicotine before birth
• premature birth
• difficult experiences in early childhood.


Does My Child Have Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD or ADD)?

Only a mental health professional can tell for sure whether symptoms of distractibility, impulsivity, and hyperactivity are severe enough to suggest a positive ADHD diagnosis. But this test may provide some behavior clues and suggestions about the next steps. This questionnaire is designed to determine whether your child demonstrates symptoms similar to those of attention deficit disorder (ADHD). Download and print out the Assessment Scale.  If you answer yes to a significant number of these questions, consult a licensed mental health practitioner. An accurate diagnosis can only be made through clinical evaluation.

Scoring Instructions for the NICHQ Vanderbilt Assessment Scales

These scales should NOT be used alone to make any diagnosis. You must take into consideration information from multiple sources. Scores of 2 or 3 on a single Symptom question reflect often-occurring behaviors. Scores of 4 or 5 on Performance questions reflect problems in performance.

The initial assessment scales, parent and teacher, have 2 components: symptom assessment and impairment in performance.
On both the parent and teacher initial scales, the symptom assessment screens for symptoms that meet the criteria for both inattentive (items 1–9) and hyperactive ADHD (items 10–18).
To meet DSM-IV criteria for the diagnosis, one must have at least 6 positive responses to either the inattentive 9 or hyperactive 9 core symptoms or both. A positive response is a 2 or 3 (often, very often) (you could draw a line straight down the page and count the positive answers in each subsegment). There is a place to record the number of positives in each subsegment, and a place for a total score for the first 18 symptoms (just add them up).
The initial scales also have symptom screens for 3 other comorbidities — oppositional-defiant, conduct, and anxiety/ depression. These are screened by the number of positive responses in each of the segments separated by the “squares.” The specific item sets and numbers of positives required for each co-morbid symptom screen set are detailed in the pdf file.
The second section of the scale has a set of performance measures, scored 1 to 5, with 4 and 5 being somewhat of a problem.
To meet the criteria for ADHD there must be at least one item of the Performance set in which the child scores a 4 or 5; ie, there must be impairment, not just symptoms to meet diagnostic criteria. The sheet has a place to record the number of positives (4s, 5s) and an Average Performance Score—add them up and divide by the amount of Performance criteria answered.

Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) Symptom Checklist

Many adults have been living with Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (Adult ADHD) and don’t recognize it. Why? Because its symptoms are often mistaken for a stressful life. If you’ve felt this type of frustration most of your life, you may have Adult ADHD.
The following questionnaire can be used as a starting point to help you recognize the signs/symptoms of Adult ADHD but is not meant to replace consultation with a trained healthcare professional. An accurate diagnosis can only be made through a clinical evaluation. Regardless of the questionnaire results, if you have concerns about diagnosis and treatment of Adult ADHD, please discuss your concerns with your physician.

The Adult Self-Report Scale  Screener is intended for people aged 18 years or older.


In children with ADHD, several brain regions and structures (pre-frontal cortex, striatum, basal ganglia, and cerebellum) tend to be smaller by roughly 5%.
ADHD brains have low levels of a neurotransmitter called norepinephrine. Norepinephrine is linked arm-in-arm with dopamine. The ADHD brain has impaired neurotransmitter activity in four functional regions of the brain.

1. Frontal Cortex
This region controls high-level functions:
• Attention
• Executive Function
• Organization
This region orchestrates our high-level functioning: maintaining attention, organization, and executive function. A deficiency of dopamine within this brain region might cause inattention, problems with organization, and/or impaired executive functioning.

2. Limbic System
This region is located deeper in the brain. It regulates our emotions and attention. A dopamine deficiency in this region might result in restlessness, inattention, or emotional volatility.

3. Basal Ganglia
These neural circuits regulate communication within the brain. Information from all regions of the brain enters the basal ganglia and is then relayed to the correct sites in the brain. A dopamine deficiency in the basal ganglia can cause inter-brain communication and information to “short-circuit,” resulting in inattention or impulsivity.

4. Reticular Activating System
This is the major relay system among the many pathways that enter and leave the brain. A dopamine deficiency here can cause inattention, impulsivity, or hyperactivity.
These four regions interact with one another, so a deficiency in one region may cause a problem in one or more of the others. ADHD results from problems in one or more of these regions.


The human brain consists of a million neurons secreting dopamine. The cells are scattered in different regions, and each area is responsible for different functions, including movement, cognitive functions, memory, and management skills such as decision-making and planning which enables attention and learning.
Dopamine is also secreted when feeling pleasure and success as part of positive feedback regulation. This miraculous system enables us to strengthen our desired behavior and progress in achieving our goals. The system works in the neural pathways that create a sense of pleasure, motivation, and concentration. When we have an interest or desire to succeed in the task, we secrete dopamine and the secretion of dopamine increases our motivation and attention and of course the feeling of success.
The reinforcement system operates under the mechanism of positive feedback, dopamine secretion is enhanced in response to success, and as a result, we are highly motivated and focused on the task.

ADHD is associated with several neurophysiological deficits. More recent theoretical approaches integrate clinical symptoms and neuropsychological difficulties within a framework of specific brain dysfunctions: cognitive deficits may emerge from dysfunctions particularly in fronto-striatal or mesocortical brain networks dopaminergic system, while problems with reward processing may be associated with dysfunctions in the mesolimbic dopaminergic system (Sagvolden et al., 2005; Sonuga-Barke, 2005).

However, deficits in ADHD may already be seen in the resting brain, and a more fundamental neuronal network approach suggests that in ADHD particularly Default Mode-Network (DMN) activity (usually prominent during rest) may interfere with activity in neuronal networks engaged in task processing, leading to difficulties in state regulation and periodic attentional lapses (Sonuga-Barke and Castellanos, 2007; Castellanos and Proal, 2012). That is why neurofeedback in ADHD management is very effective with long-lasting results. 

Pharmacological interventions, particularly with stimulants such as methylphenidate and amphetamine sulfate, as well as non-stimulants like Atomoxetine, are highly effective in reducing ADHD symptoms (Banaschewski et al., 2006; King et al., 2006). What do ADHD medications do? In simple terms, they raise the level of norepinephrine within the brain. Stimulants work by causing the brain to synthesize more norepinephrine; non-stimulants by slowing the rate at which norepinephrine is broken down. Once the level is where it should be, the brain functions normally, and the individual becomes less hyperactive, inattentive, and/or impulsive. Once the drug wears off, the level falls — and symptoms return.
That’s because dopamine is hooked into the brain’s reward system. Having more dopamine circulating are feels like getting a bonus. It feels like that extra ten points on the test, right then. That means not only feel focused and content during the study but also to continue feeling that way. “The more you use it,” one student reported, “the more of it you want to use.”
The problem is that the good feelings, feeling in control and focused — these stop when the drug passes through your system a few hours later. The problem with drugs like Adderall and Ritalin is that you have to get more to feel better. That’s an addiction.
As report many researchers the long-term effectiveness is still questionable (Molina et al., 2009; van de Loo-Neus et al., 2011). In addition, side-effects, non-response, and prejudice have raised interest in non-pharmacological treatment options (Sonuga-Barke et al., 2013; Daley et al., 2014).


ADHD has been associated with certain clinical behavioral symptoms for many years. Recently, interest has been focused on ADHD, to determine whether certain abnormal EEG patterns correlate with clinical manifestations of ADHD.
Multiple studies have determined that compared to gender and age-matched controls, children with ADHD have greater theta activity. Other studies showed an increase in delta activity, coupled with decreased alpha and beta activities.

Additionally, abnormalities in the theta/beta ratio are one of the most significant measures of EEG alterations in ADHD.
Some researchers describe that in patients with ADHD theta/low beta ratio, and theta/alpha ratios were significantly increased.
Brain scans show that ADHD brains produce more low-frequency delta or theta brain waves than do neurotypical brains, and often show a shortage of the high-frequency beta brain waves linked to focus and impulse control.


Neurofeedback (NFB) as a non-pharmacological intervention for ADHD management utilizes cognitive behavioral therapeutic elements to gain access to and practice brain activity. Several organizations worldwide are looking into claims that neurofeedback works just as well as pharma when it comes to helping kids with ADHD. A course of Neurofeedback sessions can have the same effect as the ongoing intake of psychostimulant medications like Ritalin, for example. The benefit of Neurofeedback, however, is that ongoing treatment is rarely needed after the course length and medications can be avoided altogether.

The functioning of the brain and a person’s behavior are connected. Changes in behavior can change the brain, and changes in the brain can change behavior. Neurofeedback aims to change a person’s behavior by changing their brain. With neurofeedback, it is possible to train the brain in a positive, natural way. The goal of neurofeedback is to increase the brain’s capacity for beta waves while diminishing the frequency of delta and theta waves.

Most recently, clinical trials have garnered interesting results attesting to both the presence of unique EEG patterns in the ADHD brain and the efficacy of theta suppression/beta enhancement and theta suppression/alpha enhancement protocols on ADHD symptoms reduction (see different NFB protocols detailed description on “NFB Protocol” page of this website, which will continuously update with the arrival of new research data).

In theta/beta training the goal is to decrease activity in the theta band (4–8 Hz) and to increase activity in the beta band (13–20 Hz) of the electroencephalogram (EEG) which corresponds to an alert and focused but relaxed state. Thus, this training paradigm addresses tonic aspects of cortical arousal. Alpha enhancement protocol was more effective in suppressing omission errors.

Practicing the neurofeedback allows the trainee to change his brainwave frequency to the desired frequency while using his self-regulation system. Today in the market there are a lot of Home Use Neurofeedback Headset Devices that can be used for home-based training and treatment. The neurofeedback trainee is wearing a headset that measures his brain frequency in real-time while he is playing a computer game that responds to the sensor (practically it responds to the user’s brain waves). Only when the NFB trainee’s brainwave frequency is as expected for attention or relaxation, he will score in the video game he is playing. When the trainee achieves points (meaning he has reached the desired frequency in the brainwaves), he experiences success the reinforcement system is activated and the excretion of dopamine increases naturally. The excreted dopamine increases attention and the trainee gets motivated to maintain the right frequency of the brainwaves. The flexibility of the brain is reflected in its ability to remember the way it changed frequency and by learning to reach the desired frequency even when the computer game is no longer there. This allows the trainee to keep the achieved attitude in everyday life and decrease symptoms of ADHD. 

Neurofeedback has been introduced to treat ADHD and can improve attention levels and alleviate hyperactivity symptoms. The process provides a mechanism by which the patient can normalize the cortical activity profile by decreasing slow-wave activity and increasing fast-wave activity. It is expected that compensation of the dysfunctional electroencephalogram (EEG) enhances concentration and attention and increases the arousal level. Patients will learn how to enhance the desirable EEG frequencies associated with relaxed attention and how to reduce the undesirable frequencies that are associated with under- or over-arousal.

Key Electrode Sites for ADHD Neurofeedback

1. Fz (Frontal Midline):

Location: Frontal lobe, on the midline, 20% of the distance from the nasion (bridge of the nose).
Relevance: Associated with attention, impulse control, and executive function. Targeting Fz can help improve these areas.

2. Cz (Central Midline):

• Location: The scalp vertex, halfway between the nasion and inion and equally spaced between the left and right preauricular points (just above the ears).
• Relevance: Central region involved in motor control and general arousal regulation. Often used as a reference site.

Electrode Application Sites for ADHD Neurofeedback Management

3. C3 (Left Sensorimotor Cortex):

• Location: Left hemisphere, 20% of the distance from the midline along the central line.
• Relevance: Involved in motor control and coordination, relevant for reducing hyperactivity.

4. C4 (Right Sensorimotor Cortex):

• Location: Right hemisphere, analogous to C3 on the right side.
• Relevance: Also involved in motor control; balancing neural activity related to motor functions.

Neurofeedback Protocols for ADHD Management

The protocol involves training individuals to increase or decrease specific brainwave activity at the targeted locations to improve attention, impulse control, and executive function.

1. Theta/Beta Ratio Training

This protocol aims to balance theta (4-8 Hz) and beta (15-20 Hz) wave activity to improve attention and reduce impulsivity.

• Target Brainwaves: Theta (4-8 Hz) and Beta (15-20 Hz)
• Goal: Decrease theta activity and increase beta activity to improve cognitive control and reduce symptoms of ADHD.


1. Electrode Placement: Place electrodes at Fz and Cz (reference).
2. Baseline Recording: Record baseline theta and beta activity for 5-10 minutes.
3. Feedback Mechanism: Provide real-time feedback using visual (e.g., a game or moving bar) or auditory (e.g., tone) cues. Positive feedback occurs when theta decreases and beta increases.
4. Training Sessions: Conduct sessions for 20-30 minutes, 2-3 times per week, for 20-40 sessions.
5. Progress Monitoring: Utilize attention and impulse control scales along with follow-up qEEG to track progress.

2. SMR Training Protocol

This protocol focuses on increasing sensorimotor rhythm (SMR, 12-15 Hz) activity to enhance motor inhibition and reduce hyperactivity.

• Target Brainwaves: SMR (12-15 Hz)
• Goal: Increase SMR activity to enhance motor inhibition and promote calmness.


1. Electrode Placement: Place electrodes at C3 (left sensorimotor cortex) and Cz (reference).
2. Baseline Recording: Record baseline SMR activity for 5-10 minutes.
3. Feedback Mechanism: Provide real-time feedback using visual or auditory cues. Positive feedback is given when SMR activity increases.
4. Training Sessions: Conduct sessions for 20-30 minutes, 2-3 times per week, for 20-40 sessions.
5. Progress Monitoring: Use attention and hyperactivity rating scales and follow-up qEEG to monitor changes.

3. Alpha/Theta Training

This protocol focuses on balancing alpha (8-12 Hz) and theta (4-8 Hz) waves to promote relaxation and improve cognitive control.

• Target Brainwaves: Alpha waves (8-12 Hz) and Theta waves (4-8 Hz)
• Goal: Increase alpha activity and decrease theta activity to enhance relaxation and attention.


1. Electrode Placement: Place electrodes at Fz and Cz (reference).
2. Baseline Recording: Record baseline alpha and theta activity for 5-10 minutes.
3. Feedback Mechanism: Use calming visual or auditory feedback. Positive feedback is provided when alpha increases and theta decreases.
4. Training Sessions: Conduct sessions for 20-30 minutes, 2-3 times per week, for 20-40 sessions.
5. Progress Monitoring: Use attention and relaxation scales along with follow-up qEEG to monitor changes.

Effectiveness of Neurofeedback for ADHD management

After 2 sessions of NFB 37%
After 10 sessions of NFB 60%
After 20 sessions of NFB 78%

Moreover, long-term follow-up studies with children successfully treated with neurofeedback have shown that the improved attention ability and memory improvement of these children remain stable long after treatment has ended. These children also learn easier manage their emotional status in different stressful situations. In other words, abnormal brainwave patterns are permanently normalized without the use of toxic drugs. It is also important to note that drugs do not improve the child’s ability to learn but neurofeedback does.
The research shows that neurofeedback works best for children over 6 years of age with normal or high intelligence. Usually, some 30-50 treatment sessions (30-45 minutes each) are required for successful treatment, at a rate of 2-3 sessions per week.

After 1-5 sessions 


After 6-10 sessions 


After 11-20 sessions  


After 20+ sessions 



Neurofeedback devices and systems are used for both medical and non-medical uses, and the dividing line between them may be thin. Non-medical application of neurofeedback can be considered primarily as personal improvement and conditioning for the brain and mind: to improve relaxation, attention, focus, concentration, and self-awareness, or as an adjunct to meditation, counseling, hypnosis, or achieving altered states of consciousness. It can be done without professional intervention. In cases where it is desired to relieve the conditions of a medical problem, professional help should be sought.

It is a fact that Neurofeedback systems are designed to allow the user to control a computer for recreational, educational, or entertainment purposes and are not medical instruments. You can find detailed information regarding indications, methods, and descriptions of different neurofeedback devices for home use here. However, if direct benefits are claimed for relaxation or relief from the symptoms of disorders, then the device is considered medical.

In the nonclinical embodiment, most of the same functions and capabilities are present, but they are presented in the context of an educational and recreational device. It is nonetheless true that the actual benefits may be essentially the same in both embodiments depending on how the user configures and applies the device, although the labeling and claims are different. The same instrument is being provided in both cases but with different intent.

The difference between the medical and non-medical embodiment of NFB devices lies primarily in the claims and the expectations and applications of the user.

For example, although neurofeedback can be used to improve attention and concentration, and this can be considered a personal improvement application, in cases of suspected or diagnosed Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders the use of this procedure might be regarded as a medical procedure.

It may thus be argued that neurofeedback treatment intended to reduce the symptoms of ADHD, especially when the removal from stimulants (Ritalin, etc) is desired, that neurofeedback is being used in a medical context. However, if a parent, teacher, or counselor uses neurofeedback in a home or educational setting to educate a child on how to reach a state of relaxed attentiveness and improve academic success, the treatment may be considered education, not treatment.

Neurofeedback takes advantage of the brain’s ability to change itself through a process known as Neuroplasticity. It utilizes the same learning process that occurs whenever we acquire a new skill. The brain learns by forming connections between nerve cells and utilizing important pathways that connect different locations in the brain.

The more frequently you utilize these pathways the better the brain becomes at performing the associated task.

This type of learning is a type in which responses come to be controlled by their consequences. Quite simply, Neurofeedback offers the perfect learning conditions, since it facilitates awareness of when the brain is producing healthier brainwave patterns, reinforces the positive change, and multiple opportunities to provide practice during a training session.

You can choose and change electrode location.

Excellent Brain ADHD Neurofeedback Home Training Kit

Neurosky Puzzlebox Orbit Bundle EEG Headset

Biofeedback Home Use Device

Various modalities of biofeedback, including Electromyography (EMG), Heart Rate Variability (HRV), Temperature, and Galvanic Skin Response (GSR), can also be utilized in the management of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). EMG biofeedback helps individuals gain awareness and control over muscle tension, which can reduce physical restlessness and hyperactivity often associated with ADHD. HRV biofeedback trains individuals to regulate their heart rate variability, promoting autonomic balance and improving emotional regulation and stress resilience. Temperature biofeedback involves monitoring peripheral skin temperature to enhance relaxation and decrease physiological arousal, thereby aiding concentration and impulse control. GSR biofeedback measures the electrical conductance of the skin, which varies with sweat gland activity and can provide insights into stress and arousal levels. By learning to modulate these physiological responses, individuals with ADHD can improve their focus, reduce impulsivity, and manage stress more effectively, complementing traditional neurofeedback approaches.

EMG Biofeedback home-use device

Temperature Biofeedback home-use device



• Balanced Meals
• B Vitamins
• Zinc, Iron, and Magnesium
• Multivitamins/ Multimineral
• Picamilon

• Proteins

Foods rich in protein: lean beef, pork, poultry, fish, eggs, beans, nuts, soy, and low-fat dairy products — can have beneficial effects on ADHD symptoms. Protein-rich foods are used by the body to make neurotransmitters, the chemicals released by brain cells to communicate with each other. Protein can prevent surges in blood sugar, which increases hyperactivity.

• Balanced Meals

A well-balanced diet, including vegetables, complex carbohydrates, fruits, and plenty of protein, leads to behavior that tends to be more consistently under control.

• B Vitamins

Studies suggest that B vitamin supplements may improve IQ scores and reduce aggression and antisocial behavior in children who are B-vitamin deficient. Vitamin B-6 may also increase the brains’
levels of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that improves alertness.

• Zinc, Iron, and Magnesium

Zinc synthesizes dopamine and boosts the effects of some ADHD stimulant medications, such as Ritalin and Concerta; low levels of zinc correlate with inattention. Iron is also necessary for making dopamine; low levels of iron may cause cognitive deficits and severe ADHD. Adequate levels of magnesium keep the brain calm

  • Multivitamins/Multiminerals

Daily recommended a value of vitamins and minerals are important for any child, especially one with ADHD. A daily multivitamin/multimineral will ensure that he gets what he needs.

• Picamilon

A combination of the B-vitamin niacin and gamma-aminobutyric acid, picamilon improves blood flow to the brain. It’s been shown to improve alertness and attention, as well as reduce aggressive behavior.


It is rapidly becoming acknowledged that omega-3 fatty acids are good for the brain. Our requirements for EPA (Eicosapentaenoic Acid) and DHA (Docosahexaenoic Acid) change throughout life and so does the optimal amount of each fatty acid in our diet.

Children require DHA for growth and development, and the brain, CNS, and retina rely heavily on the adequate supply of DHA during growth in the womb.

Children continue to need DHA up until the age they start school, so if children under the age of five are taking an omega-3 supplement, it should contain DHA.

After the age of five, the development of the brain and CNS starts to reduce and the body’s need for DHA reduces. This is a good time to increase EPA in the diet, as studies show that EPA can help with childhood behavior and academic performance, as well as focus, attention, and reducing aggression.

Research has shown that EPA levels are under constant demand and low EPA levels in adolescents and adults correlate strongly with the development of mental health issues, including depression, dyslexia and dyspraxia, heart problems, joint and bone conditions, as well as neurodegenerative diseases such as MS and Parkinson’s.

The majority of the body’s needs can be met by using EPA-rich oils and eating fish, marine products, organic greens, and pastured animal products.

Recent studies suggest that ADHD children may be deficient in omega-3 and that a daily supplement may decrease ADHD symptoms while improving focus and cognitive function.

Studies have yet to determine an optimum dosage of omega-3, or fish oil, in children or adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It is recommended that children four to six years of age start with a daily supplement of 500 mg of omega-3; for children seven years and older, 1000 mg.

It is determined that supplements with an EPA: DHA ratio of 2:1 with Vitamin E are the more effective for ADHD management (85% effectiveness with extension of effect over the following 6 months). Such a supplement is eVitamins Ultra Omega 3 – 750 mg with EPA/DHA  – 500/ 250 that is very effective for the management of ADHD symptoms.


Thirty minutes to a full hour of physical activity per day can make a huge difference in anyone’s mental and physical health, but especially for a child with ADHD. A child with ADHD who is regularly active may sleep better and experience fewer emotional outbursts at home and school. They may see benefits from the structure and organization of being part of a team and learning the rules of a new game or activity. Kids can also learn communication and social skills, increase coordination skills, and build up their self-esteem by being part of a sport or other activity. Because people with ADHD are at increased risk for developing depression, activities that involve exercise can lower their risk for depressive symptoms.
Sports offer lots of social interaction in addition to physical fitness. This helps kids with ADHD bond with their peers, and it helps get them out of their shell. A common issue with ADHD kids is to find something to help them gain confidence and self-esteem. They can use sports as a vehicle for making and having friends. Healthy activities like sports are better than sitting alone or in front of the television.
How do you know what sport will be best for your child? Ask him what he wants to do. Always support the choices and decisions of your child, because if he chooses to do something because he likes it then he will do it right and have a great time with it.
Many kids will see or try a lot of different athletic activities, whether at school, during camp, or in after-school programs. That gives them the chance to decide what appeals the most.
These are the best after-school activities for kids with ADHD: Swimming, Track and Cross-country, Horseback riding, Tennis, Baseball, Basketball, Gymnastics, Martial arts, Soccer, Wrestling, Archery, etc.
It’s important to remember that it might take several tries before your child finds the right sport or activity for them. It may be too much to try multiple things at once, so consider trying different sports or activities in different seasons and then letting your child decide what they like best. Never underestimate your child’s abilities because they have ADHD.
Many successful athletes like Michael Phelps, Simone Biles, Michael Jordan, and Terry Bradshaw have shared their experiences with the disorder. Artists like actor Jim Carrey, musician Adam Levine, and writer Jenny Lawson have gone on to create inspiring things while living with an ADHD diagnosis.

Dyscalculia learning disability

Dyscalculia Treatment – Neurofeedback

While there are a few general learning difficulties/disabilities that can impact mathematical performance, there is really only one identified math-specific learning disability. This disability is called dyscalculia and refers to several areas of difficulty with specific mathematical concepts and calculations. However today there is a lot of scientific evidence on the effectiveness of Neurofeedback  in dyscalculia treatment.

Dyscalculia learning disability is a lifelong condition that makes it hard for kids to perform math-related tasks. It’s not as well known or understood as dyslexia. But some experts believe it’s just as common. Approximately 15% of the population has reading and/or spelling learning disabilities and 10% have math learning disabilities.

For many children, getting through math classes and homework assignments is a daily struggle. No matter how hard the child tries to study, the math still does not come easily. Many adults deal with the same issue. Despite years of math classes and exams in the past, many adults still have difficulty doing basic math problems, which can affect day-to-day life and create feelings of embarrassment.

Researchers don’t know exactly what causes dyscalculia. These are the possible causes of dyscalculia:
Genes: Research shows that part of the difference in kids’ math scores can be explained by genes. In other words, differences in genetics may have an impact on whether a child has dyscalculia. Dyscalculia tends to run in families, which also suggests that genes play a role.
Brain development: Brain-imaging studies have shown some differences in brain function and structure in people with dyscalculia. The differences are in the surface area, thickness and volume of certain parts of the brain. There are also differences in the activation of areas of the brain associated with numerical and mathematical processing. These areas are linked to key learning skills, such as memory and planning.
Environment: Dyscalculia has been linked to fetal alcohol syndrome. Prematurity and low birth weight may also play a role in dyscalculia.
Brain injury: Studies show that injury to certain parts of the brain can result in what researchers call acquired dyscalculia.



  • Has trouble learning to count and skips over numbers long after kids the same age can remember numbers in the right order;
  • Struggles to recognize patterns, such as smallest to largest or tallest to shortest;
  • Has trouble recognizing number symbols (knowing that “5” means five);
  • Doesn’t seem to understand the meaning of counting. For example, when asked for five blocks, they just hand you an armful, rather than counting them out.

Grade School

  • Has difficulty learning and recalling basic math facts, such as 2 + 4 = 6;
  • Struggles to identify +, ‒ and other signs, and to use them correctly;
  • May still use fingers to count instead of using more advanced strategies, like mental math;
  • Struggles to understand words related to math, such as greater than and less than;
  • Has trouble with visual-spatial representations of numbers, such as number lines.

Middle School

  • Has difficulty understanding place value;
  • Has trouble writing numerals clearly or putting them in the correct column;
  • Has trouble with fractions and with measuring things, like ingredients in a simple recipe;
  • Struggles to keep score in sports games.

High School

  • Struggles to apply math concepts to money, including estimating the total cost, making the exact change and figuring out a tip;
  • Has a hard time grasping information shown on graphs or charts;
  • Has difficulty measuring things like ingredients in a simple recipe or liquids in a bottle;
  • Has trouble finding different approaches to the same math problem.

Dyscalculia can create challenges in more areas than just learning. These include social interactions and time management. Sometimes, these challenges can make kids with dyscalculia feel anxious about having to do math-related tasks. But dyscalculia is not the same as math anxiety.

Math anxiety can make kids question their abilities in math, even if they have strong skills. And although it’s not a learning issue, it can certainly get in the way of learning math.

When kids feel pressure to show what they know or worry they’re going to fail, they can become so anxious that they actually do poorly. This is particularly true on tests because performance translates into grades. In some cases, their anxiety can build and spill over into other areas of life.
Dyscalculia and math anxiety is different, but the signs and struggles can overlap. And it’s possible for a child to have both. This chart may help you better understand what you’re seeing in your child.

Signs of Math Anxiety Signs of Dyscalculia
Your child worries he’ll do poorly on a math test, even though he understands the material and has studied.
Your child expects to do poorly on a math test because he doesn’t understand the material, even after studying.
Your child does poorly on math tests, even after preparing for them, because anxiety gets in the way.
Your child does poorly on math tests, even after preparing for them, because he doesn’t understand the material.
Your child can get through homework fairly easily and answers most problems correctly. But he may feel anxious about doing it. He may even make errors because anxiety makes it hard to focus on some details. It may also make him focus too much on other details.
Your child spends a long time doing homework and gets many of the answers wrong.
Your child tries to avoid going to math class when there’s a quiz or test.
Your child tries to avoid going to math class, especially when there’s a quiz or test because he’s sure he’ll fail.
Your child gets good grades on math homework and classwork, but not on tests.
Your child gets poor grades on math homework, classwork, and tests.

It can be easy to think of dyscalculia and math anxiety as one and the same, especially because the signs can look similar.  Knowing what’s behind your child’s difficulty with math lets you respond in the best way.

  • Dyscalculia is a learning issue that affects math skills like counting, recalling math facts and understanding math concepts.
  • Math anxiety is an emotional issue involving self-doubt and fear of failing.
  • Both can create test anxiety and lead kids to try to avoid going to math classes.

It is believed that learning disorders are the result of changes in brain function. These problems may be in auditory function, memory processing, difficulties in understanding and remembering words, in express or comprehension of verbal or written language, forming letters or mathematical concepts. Research suggests that individuals with attention deficit have lots of slow brain wave activity.

Learning disabilities in children with brain mapping show one or several of the following cues: sharp and focal slow waves in one or more brain regions such as the occipital lobe, Wernicke area, Broca’s area, and sensory-motor area. EEG Neuroimaging research has consistently found dysfunction in the left posterior temporal lobe (behind the left ear) and in the occipital lobe (visual cortex) in the back of the brain. We see letters in the visual cortex and attach sounds in the left posterior temporal lobe. If these areas are dysfunctional or disconnected or the timing is off, then reading/spelling is likely to be impaired.

Dyscalculia learning disability is related to  the parietal lobe (the upper back of the head). EEG neuroimaging can indicate the types and severity of the dysfunction in this area. Moreover, the frontal lobes need to be functioning well in cooperation with both sides of the brain, as altogether they are responsible for working memory and concept development, which is crucial for math solving ability. EEG neurofeedback can usually remediate the blood flow and metabolism abnormalities, timing, and connectivity dysfunctions in affected areas.

Dyscalculia presents itself as a neuronal dysfunction in the intraparietal sulcus of the brain. In the image below, we can see the area that is affected by dyscalculia.

Dyscalculia learning disability develops a pattern of cognitive deterioration that usually manifests itself with skills deficits such as:

  • Focus (concentration)

Skill related to the pattern of cognitive deterioration linked to dyslexia. The structural deficit in these connections of neural networks is also related to inhibition, which affects the mind’s sharpness, making it more difficult for the child to learn math.

  • Divided attention

This skill is important as it allows for multitasking. Children with math disabilities present problems when responding to a stimulus because they are unable to focus, they get distracted with irrelevant stimuli, and they tire easily.

  • Working memory

This cognitive skill refers to temporary storage and the ability to manipulate information in order to complete complex assignments. Some difficulties as a result of this may be trouble following directions, forgetting instructions and tasks, low motivation, incomplete memories, being easily distracted, not remembering numbers, and delayed mental arithmetic.

  • Short-term memory

The capacity to retain a small amount of information during a short period of time. This mental deficit explains the inability to carry out math assignments. The problems present themselves when they calculate or attempt math problems. This is also related to the inability to remember numbers or multiplication tables.

  • Naming

Implies the ability to recall a word or number and use it later. Children with dyscalculia have difficulties remembering numbers because their ability to process information is deficient.

  • Planning

Low levels in this cognitive skill imply difficulties in planning and making sense of numbers and exercises. This inability to anticipate events or outcomes prevents the student from correctly completing the exercise.

  • Processing speed

This corresponds to the time it takes for our brain to receive information (a number, a mathematical equation, a problem…), understand it, and respond to it. Children that do not have any learning difficulties complete this process quickly and automatically, while children who have dyscalculia need more time and energy in order to process the information.

Brain Mapping - Neurofeedback in Discalculia Learning Disability

Mapping results on children meta-analyses (in red), on the triple-code model (green), and adult meta-analyses (orange). In green are illustrated the schematized cortical locations of the triple-code model proposed by Dehaene and Cohen, 1995, Dehaene and Cohen, 1997:
(1) Inferior parietal cortex: quantity representation,
(2) Temporal cortex: visual-computational number symbols,
(3) Articulatory loop,
(4) Verbal system,
(5) Basal ganglia: arithmetic facts,
(6) Thalamus: arithmetic facts, and
(7) Prefrontal cortex: strategy choice and planning.
In orange are additional schematic locations of areas concordant among adult studies, as demonstrated by meta-analyses (Arsalidou and Taylor, 2011):
(a) Superior frontal BA 10: formulates complex goals, sub-goal creation,
(b) Middle frontal BA 46: in more or less misleading situations it monitors more than a few items,
(c) Inferior frontal BA 9: monitor simple rules or a few items,
(d) Precentral gyrus: eye movements,
(e) Insula: interoceptive motivation of goal-directed and default-mode processes,
(f) Cingulate gyrus: converts affective goals into cognitive goals to be implemented,
(g) Right angular gyrus: visual-spatial fact retrieval (i.e., spatial-temporal schemes with non-verbalizable configurable relations), and
(h) Cerebellum: goal-directed, visual motor sequencing.
(i) Right basal ganglia: coordination of top-down and bottom-up operative/motor processes. (j) Claustrum: integration of motivated top-down and bottom-up processes.
Children implicate the right insula (BA 13) more extensively than adults in calculation tasks, whereas adults implicate more prefrontal areas

Dyscalculia test for parents and teachers

Dyscalculia is not easy to diagnose, and most schools do not have any type of early detection system in place to identify this disorder in the classroom and help children get the tools they need. For this reason, it is often up to parents and families to be alert and identify the early symptoms. If you think your child has dyscalculia, a cognitive assessment may also be useful. Deficits in cognitive skills such as focus, divided attention, working memory, short-term memory, naming skills, planning, or processing speed may be indicators of dyscalculia. 

Print this test out. It is the first step in improving your child’s future.

Dyscalculia treatment with Neurofeedback

The most effective treatment for dyscalculia learning disability, just like with dyslexia, is an early diagnosis. The earlier the problem is identified, the earlier those children with this disorder can learn the necessary tools to help them adapt to a new learning process, and the more likely they are to avoid learning delays, self-esteem problems, and other more serious disorders.

Dyscalculia treatment - solving games
Ways to help children with dyscalculia dyscalculia treatment

Studies on the effects of Neurofeedback training on learning disabilities especially mathematics disorders are not as large as on dyslexia, but confirmation of Neurofeedback effective use for ADHD by the FDA has been approved.

Neurofeedback training for dyscalculia treatment can be used both as a stand-alone therapy and as a complementary therapy. The symptoms of dyscalculia can be sustainably reduced by continuous training, as a comprehensive meta-study from 2018 clearly shows. The working memory can be increased and lead to an increased ability to concentrate.

Neurofeedback training for Concentration Improvement

Thanks to the neuroplasticity, with the use of neurofeedback in dyscalculia treatment we can rebuild deteriorated brain functions and help these children develop new brain strategies aimed to efficiently improve the difficulties associated with dyscalculia.

Dyscalculia treatment with Neurofeedback (NFB) involves a brain-computer interface that allows users to learn to control their cortical oscillations. 

Neurofeedback is considered to be a noninvasive tool for treating brain disorders and impact on brain function. Recent research provides evidence that Neurofeedback training is useful for dealing with patients suffering from an attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, learning difficulties, etc. but it also used in order to enhance cognitive function and improves brain operating efficiency of healthy people.

Neurofeedback brain training exercises for children with dyscalculia learning disability evaluates the level of cognitive deterioration and automatically creates an intervention strategy that is personalized for each profile. This allows for stimulation of the parts of the brain that show deficits through fun clinical games and exercises. Some of the deteriorated brain modules that these exercises work to improve are associated with the ability to concentrate or focus, divided attention, working memory, visual memory, and short term memory, naming, and processing or planning speed. It is proven and well-known that neurofeedback is helping to improve executive functioning, including short and long-term memory, focus, concentration, and task management, which undoubtedly make an impact in dyscalculia treatment.

Beta waves are essential for attention. Beta reduced activity in these patients can lead to learning problems. Enhancing beta waves can solve this problem. There are a number of researches that had indicated high effectiveness of dyscalculia treatment with Neurofeedback. Best results are described with neurofeedback BTR protocol with the enhancement of beta/theta ratio.

Chronic stress and math anxiety, which can make the brain pattern irregularities even greater, can make dyscalculia worse. Decreasing this stress pattern in patients with dyscalculia learning disability can significantly improve symptoms. In case of presence of math anxiety, the good results obtained with neurofeedback alpha/theta protocol with the enhancement of alpha/theta ratio.

Neurofeedback Protocols for Dyscalculia

When designing a neurofeedback protocol for dyscalculia, the primary goal is typically to encourage brainwave patterns associated with improved attention, focus, and cognitive processing, especially in brain regions involved in numerical processing and mathematical reasoning.

While there isn’t a specific neurofeedback protocol universally established for dyscalculia, researchers and clinicians have explored various electrode application sites and protocols targeting brain regions associated with numerical processing, attention, and cognitive functions. Here’s an overview of some research findings regarding electrode application sites for dyscalculia neurofeedback.

1. Frontal Cortex (Fp1, Fp2, F3, F4, F7, F8):

The frontal cortex is involved in executive functions, including attention, working memory, and cognitive control, which are crucial for mathematical reasoning.
• Research suggests that training frontal brain regions through neurofeedback may improve attentional control and cognitive processing, potentially benefiting individuals with dyscalculia.

• Protocol: Beta/SMR Training
1. Beta (13-30 Hz) training aims to enhance focused attention, cognitive processing, and executive functions associated with the frontal cortex.
2. Sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) (12-15 Hz) training focuses on promoting calm focus and inhibiting hyperactivity, which can support attentional control and cognitive performance.

Dyscalculia NFB - electrode location-1

2. Parietal Cortex (P3, P4, Pz):

• The parietal cortex plays a key role in numerical processing, spatial awareness, and visuospatial processing, which are essential for mathematical tasks.
• Studies have shown that dyscalculic individuals may exhibit differences in parietal cortex activation compared to typically developing individuals, indicating a potential target for neurofeedback training.

• Protocol: Alpha/Theta Training
1. Alpha (8-12 Hz) training aims to promote relaxed alertness and inhibit excessive mind wandering, which can enhance attentional focus and cognitive stability.
2. Theta (4-8 Hz) training targets deep relaxation and introspection, which may facilitate access to subconscious processes and creative problem-solving abilities.

Dyscalculia NFB - electrode location-2

3. Central Cortex (C3, C4, Cz):

• The central cortex is associated with sensorimotor processing and motor planning, which contribute to fine motor skills and numerical manipulation.
• Neurofeedback targeting central brain regions may help improve motor coordination and processing speed, which can be beneficial for tasks requiring numerical computation.

• Protocol: SMR/Theta Training
1. SMR (12-15 Hz) training, as mentioned earlier, promotes calm focus and sensorimotor integration, which can support motor coordination and cognitive processing related to numerical manipulation.
2. Theta (4-8 Hz) training may also be used to facilitate relaxation and introspection, depending on the individual’s specific needs and treatment goals.

Dyscalculia NFB - electrode location-3

4. Temporo-Parietal Junction (TP7, TP8):

• The temporo-parietal junction is implicated in various cognitive functions, including attentional allocation, social cognition, and numerical processing.
• Research suggests that dyscalculic individuals may show differences in temporo-parietal junction activation during numerical tasks, indicating its potential relevance for neurofeedback training.

• Protocol: Alpha/Theta or Beta/SMR Training
1. Similar to the protocols targeting parietal and frontal regions, training at the temporo-parietal junction may involve alpha/theta or beta/SMR protocols, depending on the desired outcomes and individual response to treatment.

5. Midline Sites (Fz, Cz, Pz):

• Midline electrode sites encompass regions such as the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and midline parietal areas, which are involved in attentional control, error monitoring, and cognitive processing.
• Training midline brain regions through neurofeedback may enhance attentional focus, cognitive flexibility, and error detection, which are important for mathematical problem-solving.

• Protocol: Alpha/Theta or Beta/SMR Training
1. Training at midline electrode sites typically involves alpha/theta or beta/SMR protocols, aiming to enhance attentional control, cognitive flexibility, and error monitoring functions associated with the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and midline parietal areas.

Dyscalculia NFB - electrode location-4

6. Individualized Approaches:

• Some studies advocate for individualized approaches to electrode application, where electrode sites are selected based on each individual’s unique neurophysiological profile, as determined by quantitative EEG (QEEG) assessments.
• By tailoring neurofeedback protocols to target specific areas of dysregulation in each individual, greater efficacy and personalized treatment outcomes may be achieved.

• Protocol: Tailored to Individual Needs
1. Individualized neurofeedback protocols may incorporate a combination of frequency bands (e.g., beta, alpha, theta, SMR) and training strategies based on each individual’s unique neurophysiological profile, as determined by quantitative EEG (QEEG) assessments.
2. The specific protocol used for each individual may vary based on their presenting symptoms, cognitive strengths and weaknesses, and treatment goals.

Before initiating neurofeedback training, a quantitative EEG (QEEG) assessment is often conducted to identify the individual’s baseline brainwave patterns and areas of dysregulation. The QEEG analysis can help determine which specific brainwave frequencies (e.g., theta, alpha, beta) and brain regions may be contributing to the dyscalculia symptoms.
Based on the QEEG results and the individual’s specific needs, a personalized neurofeedback protocol is developed.

Dyscalculia Treatment with Neurofeedback Home Use Device

You can choose and change electrode location.

Forbrain Bone Conduction Audio Neurofeedback home- use device

Improve your speech, fluency, memory, focus, coordination, and many other sensory functions, resulting in several adjustments in the psychological (cognitive skills) /emotional domain in just a few uses with Forbrain.

The audio-feedback headset with bone audio transmission improves your pronunciation, speech flow, and rhythm while speaking for clearer and more effective communication through specially developed mental & sound therapy.

Forbrain helps children and adults to improve their language and learning skills with audio-vocal workouts by the TOMATIS method.
Forbrain is the first evidence-based technology that can be used by individuals at home. It has become the solid “bridge” in the gaps between sessions in practice and life at home.

Effective Learner & Study Trainer with MindWave Mobile 2

Double your learning speed by knowing your learning effectiveness! When you are effective, you can absorb more and retain more. If you are not effective, try changing your learning method, switching to a different task, or taking a rest. The Effective Learner app uses NeuroSky’s brainwave sensing headset to detect your learning effectiveness and show it as 6 different color-coded levels, so you can gauge your effectiveness with a glance. MindWave Mobile headset required. Buy your headset then download the Effective Learner App with the optional Study Trainer add-on. Read more…

Neurosky with Effective Learner 

The Excellent Brain Home Kit

The Excellent Brain Home Kit will enable you to train your attention and focus abilities using a cutting-edge Neurofeedback kit at the convenience of your own home. Excellent Brain software is a revolutionary program that helps children and teens with attention deficit problems, overcome learning and behavioral difficulties and improves their self-esteem significantly.

This software is friendly, easy to use, and challenging. The software helps the children to understand when they lose focus and when they are present, and thus they can take responsibility and be focused while doing homework alone or with friends.

The Excellent Brain kit comes with a Neurosky EEG wave measurement headset that can connect to your PC (Excellent Brain and the MindWave Mobile 2 in combination are only compatible with Windows 10) or a tablet with a standard Bluetooth device.

Our brain operates at varying frequencies (electrical brain waves), some are higher and others less. Functioning requires a certain frequency. For example, for thinking, attention, and motivation, we need a higher frequency. It was noted that when people suffer from ADHD symptoms and are required for one of these activities, the brain wave frequency does not rise to the required height or does not maintain long. The neurofeedback training method is a non-invasive way to practice and improve focus and attention by changing your brain waves to the good regardless of medications.

Read more….

Excellent Brain ADHD Neurofeedback Home Training Kit


Antonia Plerou, Panagiotis Vlamos. 2016, Neurofeedback Training Effect in Cognition and Mathematical Perception: IORE Journal of Bioinformatics & Computational Biology IJBCB Vol1.1 (2016), DOI: 10.21770/0907-3004.004

Peyman Hashemian, Pezhman Hashemian. Effectiveness of Neuro-feedback on Mathematics Disorder; Hashemian and Hashemian, J Psychiatry 2015, 18:2

Marie Arsalidouab, Matthew Pawliw-Levaca, Mahsa Sadeghia, Juan Pascual-Leonea. 2018. Brain areas associated with numbers and calculations in children: Meta-analyses of fMRI studies. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 30, April 2018, Pages 239-250,